Know Your Protocols - Applications

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There are a ton of port numbers and applications on the exam. So what I'm going to do in this episode is just do a really quick rundown in particular, quick overview of the protocols that you're going to be seeing on the exam, port numbers and basic functionality. So this is going to be really, really quick. And we're going to be running through all kinds of them. So watch fast. First is hypertext transfer protocol or good old HTTP using TCP port 80.

This is for unsecure websites. Now we always say Port 80 for HTTP, but you could also see a lot of systems that use default ports like for example 8080 or something like that, but the actual default is always ad. Next is secure HTTP or HTTPS. This is going to be using TCP port 443. Okay, now let's talk about remote shells. So the first one is going to be ancient old telnet telnet has been around forever and it uses TCP port 23 it is completely insecure.

If you're going to using remote shell today, you're going to be using Secure Shell or SSH, and that's on port 22. In fact, we're going to see a lot more of SSH because not only does it make it a good shell, it can also do tunneling and other programs can run inside it. So what I want to talk about now is file transfer. If we want to move a file from one computer to the next, we've got a lot of protocols in here. The granddaddy of all is File Transfer Protocol or FTP. It uses ports 20, and 21.

Although in some cases, it will only use Port 21. The problem with FTP is it's completely insecure. So there's a bunch of alternatives to regular FTP. The first one is FTP over SSH. So basically, we set up an SSH connection. And instead of just using it as a remote shell, we fire up an FTP program and run it through it.

So if we're doing FTP over SSH, we're using Port 22. Another option is ftps. Basically, what they did is they took old FTP, and they added the same SSL TLS security that we have with HTTPS. So it runs on FTP ports, 20 and 21. Just like regular FTP, however, it's completely secure. Next is SFTP.

This is called SSH File Transfer Protocol or secure File Transfer Protocol. This sounds the same, but it's a totally different protocol than FTP. It has really great security and it runs on port 22. Next is called secure copy, or SCP. This is a very primitive file transfer over SSH. It's just a command line.

Now with these other ftps you could actually make folders on the remote system and stuff like that. This thing only moves files. It's very primitive, but it still works. Next is trivial FTP. TFTP is exactly as the name sounds a very trivial form of FTP. It only allows you to copy files and it runs On UDP, it's one of the very few protocols that runs on UDP.

And that's UDP port 69. Now, Windows systems also move a lot of files, sharing folders and that type of stuff. It doesn't use any of these ftps it's got its own Microsoft net bias protocol. So net bias originally ran on ports 137 138 139 however, the more modern versions use something called SMB server message block and that runs on port 445. Next, let's talk about mail. If you're sending mail, you're going to be using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol smtp.

It runs on TCP port 25 and remember that sends our mail to the other folks. Now to get your mail back you have a choice you can either use iMac or you can use pop. I MAMP stands for Internet Message Access Protocol and it uses Port 143 pop is an older protocol but still quite popular. And it uses Port 110. Okay, let's move into the world of what I'm just going to call etc. These are all about over the place.

Number one, the famous DNS Domain Name System. This is what allows us to use names like www dot total and things like that. It runs on TCP port 53. Next is DHCP or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP is what allows us to have dynamic IP addresses instead of having to type in IP addresses in all our computers. It's going to use UDP port 67 and 68.

Next is simple Network Management Protocol. And overall protocol we use for organizing our networks we can have SNMP have our routers talk to us and stuff like that. It uses UDP ports 161 and 162. LDAP or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol uses Port 389. Last for remote desktops This is used heavily by Windows for example is RDP RDP protocol which is the underpinning which allows us to Login to remote desktops uses TCP port 3389. Now folks, you're going to be seeing more of all of these protocols in different episodes.

So what I'm only trying to do here is give you a nice organized pile so that you make sure you're comfortable with a whole bunch of port numbers and a whole bunch of functionalities with a whole bunch of protocols.

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