Ethernet Concepts

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Welcome back everyone. Now we're going into Ethernet concepts, not that you haven't done Ethernet concepts in the past in other courses, or within your networking, career or education. But here we're gonna get into other types of Ethernet concepts as well if you never touched upon it. Now there's variety of applications for campus networks. Now let me reiterate what they mean by campus networks when it comes to ccmp. Campus networks and enterprise networks, they, they're interchangeable with each other.

Okay, so think about when they say campus networks as an enterprise network, bandwidth requirements for segments on the network. These are all things you need to take into consideration. Since we are segmenting every part of our network, which you must do, you don't want one huge broadcast domain bandwidth does have to be one of your considerations. The traffic flow was Then that particular segment or that particular part of the network, you need to pay attention to and that's going to really dictate. What is it that you're going to put there, what media, you're going to put there, what type of switch you're going to put there? Do you need various switches, various routers, where the case may be different types of cabling, whether it be cat five, cat six, or even fiber, you never know.

And then the size of the user community, and that is something that we've talked about during the CCNA. And now, because when you create VLANs, and eventually we're going to talk about VLANs. But once you segment your network, you don't want to burden that particular part of the segment. Right? If you can't help it because of the type of machinery or end devices that you're using, that the packets are big, but here it says user community, so don't squeeze in a whole bunch of people in one particular VLAN. And I've always said that if you're segmenting is for the purpose while keeping the size small segments small.

So you really need to be very careful with that. Now, even at the scale to support increasing bandwidth, the minimum should match the need for each campus network, obviously, every segment, every segment to match the need for that particular part of the network, you're not going to have a segment in your network, your enterprise network that's running Gigabit Ethernet, and all they're doing is just going online doing some research or something like that, where the architectural side of the enterprise network is running cat five, by with half duplex on the switches and they're struggling just to get packets across. So definitely, the medium should match. All right, that part of the network so I can scale appropriately, appropriately. Okay. Now, there are some tables.

We'll talk about them in a little bit. But here's as Ethan Alana's base On I triple E 802 dot three, we know this that Ethernet 802 dot three, that's the IEEE nos that on that we've talked about this in the past, it is shared medium. Yes, Ethernet is a shared medium. And that's where the problem comes in. And you can see here that it talks about csma CD by default collision, right carrier sense, multiple access collision detection. That's the problem with Ethernet.

Ethernet is first come first serve. And by default, it uses half duplex. And this is why hubs hubs is a bad word. We don't use hubs anymore. Okay, we don't use hubs anymore. It's all switches or switches by default, maybe already set to half duplex.

That's why we need to go in there and turn it into full duplex full duplex. Okay, so that's the problem with Ethernet. Either you're supposed to allocate dedicated amount of bandwidth for each interface, you can, you can go inside that port and you can tell it how much bandwidth you want to use on that particular port and every port could be different because every port is facing a particular segment. Okay. Ah full duplex mode further increases network, obviously, obviously we want full duplex we want for bugs you want to send and receive the same time you want to send and wait, receive that's half duplex. No, you want to use all four pairs, which is full duplex, send the receipt.

So if you are running cat five or cat six, all right, shielded twisted pair or even unshielded twisted pair, which is the common. All right, you want to make sure that you're running full duplex, right, we're creating these private collision domains by these that you get the full bandwidth out of that hundred megabits per second, turn that port into 100 megabits per second. Use those four pairs of wires, you get more out of your network. Now I said we're going to get into tables and we are now there's something for your basic knowledge. Either sound was originally based on bandwidth of 10 megabit per second back in Fred flinstones days, right? 10 megabits per second.

All right for no one. Not anymore. That is not the case. Because as it says here, the evolution we went from Ethernet all the way to 100 Gigabit Ethernet. Now, I don't know how many of you have seen 100 Gigabit Ethernet. I know I've worked with 10 Gigabit Ethernet when I was in telecommunications, alright, but Gigabit Ethernet that's a given.

That's a given here, that's one gigabit per second 100 megabits per second as Fast Ethernet and 10 megabit per second is Ethernet. fast internet is what mainly a lot of people hopefully are using. And well we'll rephrase that. I hope that at least they're using Fast Ethernet, nothing less. You want nothing less than 100 megabits per second on your network that goes in today's world in today's society, whether it be a small network On enterprise network, yes, this has to go fast, we want things to fly. So that's where Gigabit Ethernet comes in.

And you do want to make sure that the cabling that you're using will support that one gigabit per second and those ports and the devices that you have will allow you to change that to 1000 megabits per second. That's the whole key to that. Okay. All right. Here are your requirements for cabling. All right, you got 100 base TX, that's cat 510, base T two, you will not have to worry about 10 base t 234, or five.

Again, these are just tables for your knowledge, doubtful that in your ccmp exam, you're going to see something like this 184 again, the same thing, but here you can see that 10 base T two only uses two pairs of wires. Were time based e four uses all four pairs of wires. All right. So but again, that means is half duplex or this one Be full duplex. Because you're only using two pairs of wires you can only either send or receive here you can send and receive at the same time. All right, now of course, we go to FX.

All right, which is going to be now our fiber. And before we get started, because there are more tables, there's the warrior, alright, it's gonna be all fiber. There's, we know that there's single mode fiber, there's multimode fiber, they're not going to ask you the size of the microns, okay? They're not going to get down to the nitty gritty of the core and the cladding and all that stuff. That's not gonna happen. Know that fiber exists no 100 base FX, okay, that is fiber fiber.

Now, we can go to 400 meters at half duplex, or 2000 meters of full duplex, or if you're using and here's his SMF, 10 kilometers, 10 kilometers, obviously, you know, uses between buildings, unless you're six miles, which is what that is 6.2 miles away from each other. All right, you're going to use that as a backbone. This will be then a backbone that will take you all the way out there. single mode. So if you're using a multimode, that's somewhere in the vicinity between buildings in a campus, you know, college network or an enterprise network that you're working in, know the technology, know the type of wiring that you need. Obviously, if you're going you're walking into a network, you need to see what you're dealing with.

So then you can look at this is not something you memorize, you memorize it for an exam. But for real world, you have a right there for you. Okay, and you can look up and see what you need. These are standards. That's all they are. That's all they are, you can scale faster networks and gigabit obviously, and tutorials are required for this to happen.

There are two technologies for Gigabit Ethernet. We know we have the I triple E 802 dot three but we also have the fancy x three t 11 Fibre Channel, that's what provides high speed application specific integrated circuits or asex. Okay, here, we have Everything is 1000 bass, but the CX, the TDs x, l x and z x and here will tell you the type of wiring you need. Again, do not freak out when you see multimode fiber, that's what that means multimode fiber, those 62.5 micron, they're not going to get into that nitty gritty, but for your information for you to know, okay, is how many pairs of wires are using and how far these cables go. Take a look at it. If you can memorize it, hey, more power to you.

That's good to know. Are you going to be wiggling fiber again for the test for the test for the test? You always want as much as much information as possible. So if you want to memorize the the microns and all that good stuff, great, but if you just say hey 100 base sx, use one pair of wires and 275 meters. Okay, and the microphones bigger than all can go up to 150 meters. That's how you met me.

Want to simplify it for the exam? Because there's no way they're going to get into that nitty gritty okay? It's not gonna happen. Aggregation for gigabit links to 10 gigabit was developed in layer two frames, okay? 10 gigabit is also known as I triple E oh two a three, a II operates only a full duplex nine connects campuses networks at core layer. And when you use a sonnet or SDH networks, this is where you This right here is what you need to focus your studies on this little bits right here.

Now here we have the Tang giggy. Alright, and the types that you need that you will use, you got the star and the SW DSC, the LR Lw er the LX. They're all right there. And they'll tell you which type multimode or single mode and the size of the micron and how far you can get a look at it's 40 kilometers. All right, you know that this is not going to be between buildings or anything like that your buildings aren't that far spread apart. Okay, why even 10 kilometers Okay, so you're not going to be able to need to use it to use that but know that it exists.

Now there is there is like again, the type what type of fiber are using and then the maximum distance and you should be good to go anything beyond 10 gigabits All right. It's just good to know why info exists why we saw 100 gigabits per second some careless switches over 40 and 100 gigabits per second 40 gigs uses something called que es FP and 40 and 100 gigabits use it really, it'll 203 anything Ethernet is going to use the I triple E 802 dot three, that's the Ethernet standard period. Okay. And obviously, like I said, this is not going to be in your cert, this is not going to be in your cert. Okay? Lastly, duplex operations.

First of all pair Gigabit Ethernet ports support all three speeds. There's one thing That happened to me. One thing that happened to me I think I've said it in other courses. firewall. All right, what was it all watchguard firewall. The ports supported 10 101,000 megabits per second.

I listened to someone that told me not just go cat five eat Biggie, and you'll support 100 gigabit per second. Wow. Okay, I didn't know any better back then. So I bought the cable. Okay, I plugged it into the firewall, guess which like, little 100. Once I got my cat six, and I plugged it in, then the 1000 light lit up.

You got to make sure that when you're getting your devices and you're getting your cabling, right, that you're going to use, you have to make sure that they will support the speed that you want. Because imagine you buying equipment switches, routers, firewalls, by Nic cards that support 1000 megabits per second and then you buy calfire you're shooting yourself in the foot, make sure that everything is the same. If you're gonna run a gigabit, then you got to make sure you have the right cabling, which is cat six. Okay, and then your right switches the right Nic cards right everything else, and then do your configuration, which we'll be doing later on. So you can see how that's done. All right, ah, because you will have and this was in the CCNA duplex mismatch, you'll start getting errors, because one's running a half duplex.

One's running a full duplex you want to get into that you don't want to get into that. And the settings of the port are to outer negotiate. Yes. And of course I set up the ports on the switch already set up set to dynamic auto. So they will learn automatically the speed is there, but you can set the speed for it. If you know what you're running already.

Try to keep everything the same 1000 megabits per second. All right now it will use the highest speed detect So that's good. That's good. So you do not want to run in today's networks, especially enterprise campus networks, anything less than 1000 gigabits per second. And with that said, I'll see you in the next

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