How do we Subnet?

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Welcome back, everyone. So how do we submit? Well, there are many methods. There's math, right? Everybody has their own method of doing things. You know, people like to use all sorts of formulas and 10 whiteboards and 20 chalk lines and all this craziness.

You don't need this. Okay? Somebody made easy. My last, okay. When somebody was when somebody is concerned, you have certain variables you look at, because they'll tell you, I need these number of hosts, or I need these number of networks, okay? Or, hey, this is a subnet mask that you need to work with.

Oh, okay. Because if they give you a subnet mask, I'll give you something. Because if I tell you Yeah, I'm on the 192 a, my IP address is 1921681 dot 92. I will no agreement do I assume You're running a cider 24 ORS are broken up, you know, with a cider of, I don't know, 27 incrementing by 3232 6496 during the 64 network, I mean, so this is what I'm telling you. There is these variables exist in IP version four. So they got to give you something on these many hosts, or any of these many networks or on a, you know, this is a subnet mask you have how many hosts you have with that subnet mask.

How many whole networks you have with a subnet mask. Okay? So you need those things. ipv6 that doesn't matter this out the window, okay? doesn't care. I mean, per network and ipv6, you have 15 quintillion, don't ask me that's a lot of zeros.

If I made that kind of money, I wouldn't be doing this. Okay. So anyway, and I before you need to know this, based on these variables, you make decisions where to draw that Magic line? Yes. Once you draw that line, it's over. You know, that's it.

So let's do this. Let's stop talking. Is Goro lab. do some work? See you there? Hey, everybody, welcome to the subnetting or how do I subnet lab?

Very simple. Very, very simple, okay? First, you know there's Proctor's reading all that are but you need to know that each octave These are their bid values. Okay? Any talked to they don't change, they remain the same. All right.

And the maximum value of any given octet, as you already know, is 255. And this should look familiar, this bit two decimal table right here. If it does it, memorize it, you'll have this resources at your disposal. Okay, but memorize it. Okay, this will help you and you will see it now, how you can use this and what this means. One bit 128 means that this bit is odd.

So it's 128, two bits, add these 2123 bits at that 32 to 24, and then 242 48 to 52 to 34 to 35. Okay, that's what that means. Okay, so this is what this is telling you. So an example of using that table, alright, is the following. So you get a question, right? You're gonna get a question.

And I'll put it up here, also, so you know where you can go and explain to you how they did it. But it's a good website to practice some many sub netting Okay, you can go there and look at their, their questions. Obviously, in your CCNA books, there's questions on somebody's eye, Cisco press or whoever it is that you're using. Okay, whatever book that you're using. practice those questions.

Okay? It's not cheating. So don't worry, you know, you have to review some questions. Alright, so that's not cheating. All right. Neither is this website.

So let's get to a point here. What range does the following host? Oh, what is I should say, let me put that in there maybe grammatically correct. What is the range? Or what is what is ranges? What is the range?

That the following holds belongs to the or does the following host blog, whatever, you get the gist of it, okay. I'm not an English teacher. So basically, this is an actual host address. And that is its subnet mask. So we need to find out, okay, where does what is the range for this particular host? Okay, where does he fit in?

Okay, no problem. So we look at this last octet, you know, this is the one we're working in but it's not full. These three are taken off. So we know we're not using that these are masks. So there's our network right here or part of it. And then we have 224.

Okay, so what's 224? How many bits in? Oh 2243 bits in. Okay. So what do we do three bits in 1230. Okay, so we're incrementing by 32.

So anything come in by 32, we get to 144 because this is the interesting octet. Okay, so let's do that. Now, I'm going to start by zero, because we're using the zero network. Okay, zero. I'm just gonna put all this network ID here for those of you say, with what is that? Okay, zero 3264.

You're doubling as you go. Right? You're incrementing by 3296 128 and 30 to 160. And 30 to 192 and 32 to 24. I could have stopped because I need to get to 144. So I can stop right here.

I really want to stop right here, because this goes over 160. I wanted to show you something, okay, but we'll get there in a second. All right, so we see here that 144 has to fall in between 120 and one 16th. Okay, so the range one to the range. Okay. is going to be one, two, x dot x dot x dot because we're on the last octet.

What's after 128? That's the network. Right? Oh, 129. Okay, cool. And then through what?

Well, we don't know. Okay, so Okay, so we incremented by 32. No problem. Let's add these guys up. That comes out to 31. Wow, I'm good at math.

No, I'm not, is one less than network increment? Okay? That's what this adds to. That's it four and 16 is 2028 3031. How about that? Okay, one last year network increment is the number you used to calculate for broadcasts, well, 31.

So we take the sum of these bit values, and we add it to this guy right here, which is your network ID, which is what 59 What is that? That's your broadcast. Okay. Test. How did I get back there? Okay, let's bring this over here somewhere.

All right. So we got x dot x dot x 159. All right. That's our broadcast. So What is our last available address? x dot x dot x dot 158.

Forgot to die right here. Hold on one second fusional, buddy. All right, so let's answer the question. What is the range that this holds belongs to? Well if it belongs to the 129 through the 158 range. That's it.

That's all it is. What did I do? Okay? Somebody gave me a subnet mask, a dotted decimal numbering format. Okay? So I said, All right, well, the interesting octet is my last octet because that's the one that's not full.

So look at that number 220. And listen, it's going to be one of these numbers here. Okay, there's not going to be nothing funky. Okay, so as we look to 24 or 224, two First, how many bits always three bits? Okay, so let me go to that octet. I'll put three bits in all look, it starts right here at 3232 10.

So our increment by 32. All right, so then we increment by 32. I started at zero because we're using zero network will use as your network nowadays. All right? We're now back in Fred Flintstone days. So we're using the zero network routers understand it.

And there's a command to use as your network. I'll type it right here. Use zero network command is IP subnet, subnet. I think it's hyphen zero, IP subnet zero. That's already that's already on. All right.

But it's not just type it again, okay. If you were, let's say, yeah, and when you're using the zero network means that you're able to use this guy, right one to one success. One dot zero, meaning the range in there. And then you're able to use the last network two to four. Why were we able to use it before we'll look that numbers in the mask. So routers will go cuckoo, and we don't understand it, they're going to understand that the programming wasn't there.

So we're only allowed to use 30 260-490-6128 161 92. That's it. But now we're allowed to use as your networks, we can use the first and we can use the last, okay? That's all there is to somebody. Once you find this guy, you're done. Just increment loop, five, find out what the sub is.

The bit valleys to the right. There's a simple cause we're in a class C anywhere in the last octet, okay. And then you add the sum of those bit values to your network ID. In this case, it was 128. So 31 and 128 is 149. That gives you your broadcast also What's in between 128 and 149?

Well, what's after 128 29? What before 159 128? There's your age? What are these access lies? These access are one eye two 168. One.

I just didn't want to run them over again. Okay. But that's it. That's all there is to that. It doesn't matter. You can follow you follow the same format for every class of address, but guess what?

We have a lab on that too. So you'll know how to do that. Okay. But this is how we saw net. And yes, my goal for everyone is under 30 seconds. Okay.

You need to be you need to do this quickly. My suggestion is when you go take the test, write this, write this table and also write the implementation of 16 before you start, when that Proctor gives you you tell her Hey, can you give me three lines It's Thank you, you sit down before you hit start, you write all this stuff down, or the thing you had you regurgitate it onto those laminates. Right? Right? The increment of 16. So you know, you know, you don't have to think about, you know, math or anything, but you get nervous.

How do you just do it? Now, when you get a straightforward question like this, most likely not all right. But if you understand the concept of subnetting, which is we explained before, is taking a large network into little micro networks. Okay, obviously making it better using VLANs. But again, this is so many, and this is the most easiest way to do it. Okay.

And I told you at the beginning of this particular lecture, I showed you my book that's on Amazon. Alright, this is the only IP book you'll ever need. Okay. I'll do that the whole time. But whatever. You got it.

Just look Look for me on Amazon IP, and you all pop up. Okay? You can't miss it. It's the matrix with a colorful offering. I'm there. Okay?

It will show you the same thing I'm showing you now. Okay, simple, simple. And there's diagrams and there's everything. All right? This is the way you do it. Do not do any complicated formulas.

If you're, you know, you're into math and you like to come with a form, that's fine. If not, just find your increments. Once you find that's why I told you that the Sunday Mass is the key. Because once you know, okay, oh 224224 would have been here, okay. Then we increment in the second octet, or I mean the third octet or increment in the four and the second octet, it doesn't matter. See, we're the you're not going to see a mass.

You are not going to see a mass there looks like it is 255224255255. Hello. That's an Asana mask. That's probably a host ID a broadcast address. Okay? No, no, no.

No, no, no, no, no, no. Okay. It's always gonna be 25525 525-522-2400. Yeah, so my that you're not gonna have anything, you know, crazy like I did before, okay? So this is how you submit, find your income it, look at your mask, okay and find your increment i tell you there's different variables may tell you how many holsters required for this mask. There's a whole bunch of things.

But again in the next lecture, or in more lectures upcoming, we'll do different classes of IP addresses. And then we'll go ahead and, and you'll see how it's done. In the front office, just follow this particular concept. Look at the mask on the increment, increment by after your networks. Get the sum of the new values to the right of another increment. Attitude network ID gives you broadcast what's in between.

There you go. They got the answers to everything. I'll see you in the next

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